Artificial Intelligence in Improving Healthcare

Artificial intelligence (AI) application in the medical field is a sensitive issue for human beings. When AI is mentioned, many people relate it with the recent science-fiction movie where super machines have taken over and enslaved people. This fear has no basis, experts in the medical field forecast that by 2060, artificial intelligence will be able to do all tasks humans do. Although AI usage has attracted condemnation in the medical field, it is making great strides in facilitating and improving life. Artificial intelligence is one of the industries that are growing very fast. Its growth is bringing positive impact in the society, especially in the medical field. Not only will AI contribute to saving lives by providing effective medical machinery but will impact hugely on the growth of the economy in the medical world, and it will also provide safer options for patients.

Agus, D., (2018, December 28). AI is transforming medicine. Aging Reversed [Video file). Retrieved from 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v09ixmM3clYThis blogpost mainly focused on various articles that outline applications of AI technology in improving healthcare.

     Dr. Agus is a researcher on artificial intelligence at the University of Southern California. According to Agus video file, artificial intelligence computers have been designed to make decisions with minimal human intervention. The speaker notes that AI is fundamentally playing a critical role in the medical field. Doctors and hospitals are now able to access a lot of data which contains life-saving information. According to Agus, physicians are now able to access information on treatment methods, survival rates, outcomes, and healthcare speed, which have been gathered from millions of patients. Artificial intelligence provides computing power to analyze and detect large trends from data and make predictions to identify potential health outcomes. Agus gives an example of how the accuracy of tools such as a microscope has improved to 95.5%, especially precision in the identification of cancer cells. This video is relevant to the subject because it describes the contribution of AI in improving the medical field.

Blease, C., Kaptchuk, T.J., Bernstein, M.H., Mandi, K.D., Halamka, J.D. & DesRoches, C.M. (2019). Artificial intelligence and the future of primary care: Exploratory qualitative study of U.K. general practitioners’ views. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(3).  Retrieved from http://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/12802

                 Blease et al.’s (2019) article explain how artificial intelligence is disrupting the medical profession, especially in the biomedical informatics field. The article explores the opinions of general practitioners perceptions of the artificial application in the medical field. The article surveys the opinions of 720 general practitioners on the likelihood of artificial intelligence replacing human intelligence. The research results indicate that general practitioners are in support of the application of the use of technology in healthcare to improve efficiencies, especially the reduction of administrative costs on medical professionals. The article gives timely information on the views of physicians on the AI scope in primary health care. The article is relevant to the subject matter because it samples opinions of general practitioners on the artificial intelligence application in healthcare and how AI is playing a vital role in the improvement of healthcare.


Daven, H.T., Hongsermeier, T.M., & Cord, K.A.M. (2018). Using AI to improve electronic health records. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/12/using-ai-to-improve-electronic-health-records

                 The article examines how electronic medical records at large have played a critical role in improving decision making in the medical field. According to Daven, Hongsermeier, and Cord, EHR (electronic health records) are assisting clinicians in providing patient-centered quality healthcare. Moreover, the artificial intelligence application in the medical field has helped in making EHR systems more intelligent and flexible. Artificial intelligence capabilities for electronic health records have helped in quick medical data extraction whereas AI is helping in extracting index data from medical notes. AI has also helped in improving the predictive and diagnostic algorithms which are integrated with the EHRs as support in decision making. Finally, AI has played a critical role in enhancing data entry and clinical documentation by providing support tools that integrate clinical note composition and data collection.

                 The article’s information is vital to the topic of the application of AI in the medical field. The information contained in the article is up-to-date because the article was published in December last year, and it is contained in the Harvard Business Review, which is renowned for publishing relevant quality articles and quality. The authors have the authority to talk about the topic; Daven is a Distinguished Professor in Management and Information, Hongsermeier is a Chief Medical Information Officer and Cord is a Ph.D. candidate in Biostatistics and Epidemiology.

Donovan, F., (2018). Healthcare artificial intelligence, making sense of data flood. HIT Infrastructure. Retrieved from https://hitinfrastructure.com/news/healthcare-artificial-intelligence-making-sense-of-data-flood

                 Donovan gives statistics on the application of AI data in managing and cleaning of data in healthcare. AI and machine learning in healthcare are allowing medical practitioners to make sense of medical data. The author notes that many challenges, such as inefficiencies that encumbered digital transition, are being eliminated. By 2026, the author notes robot-assisted surgery will be more than $40 billion, virtual nursing assistance will be $20 billion, fraud detection will be $14 billion, clinical trial participant identifier will be $13 billion, and automated image diagnosis will be $3 billion. The author notes that AI algorithms have become complicated, for instance, image recognition. The article does not give many details about AI application and does not have authority about artificial intelligence application in the medical field, but the article gives prospects of artificial intelligence in the future. Moreover, the article provides specific estimates of how AI will reduce the cost of healthcare in the United States. The article is up-to-date because it was published in 2018 and contains relevant information about artificial intelligence applications in the medical field.

Harvard Medical School. (2019, April 9). MD vs. Machine: Artificial intelligence in health care [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSDfma4VEx8

                 The video explains various ways in which artificial intelligence is impacting the healthcare sector. From cancer and chronic diseases to radiology and also an assessment of risk, AI had created endless opportunities that healthcare can leverage. According to the speakers in the video file, AI offers advantages over traditional clinical decision-making techniques and analytics. Through AI integration in the medical field, algorithms learning have become accurate and precise where humans have gained unprecedented knowledge about care processes, diagnostics, patient outcomes, and treatment variability. One importance of artificial intelligence that is emphasized in the video file is how AI plays a critical role in eliminating biases in healthcare methods. The video file article presents concise and facts about artificial intelligence application and is relevant to the subject matter because it provides up-to-date information about AI application in healthcare.

Jiang, F., Jiang, Y., Zhi, H., Dong, Y., Li, H., Ma, S.,…Wang, Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: past, present, and future. Strove and Vascular Neurology, 2(4). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2017-00010

                 The article highlights how AI in healthcare mimics and perfects human intelligence. Increasing healthcare data availability and improving medical analytical techniques. The article highlights popular medical fields where healthcare applies artificial intelligence like in neurology and cardiology. The article examines four major areas that AI is applied in a disease treatment process, and these areas are; detection, treatment, prediction of outcome, and evaluation of prognosis. The article predicts how artificial intelligence will be relied on by medical professionals by 2030. The article is a scholarly article that has an elaborate abstract and many references to support the healthcare use of artificial intelligence. The authors of the article are specialists in the medical field in different universities in China. The article contains relevant information on how AI technologies are used in the research of cancer.

Panch, T., Szolovits, P. & Atun, R. (2018). Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and health systems. Journal of Global Health, 8(2). DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.7189%2Fjogh.08.020303

                 The authors explain how health sector systems globally are facing challenges such as increased disability, illness, and morbidity, which is caused by epidemiological transition and aging population, increased healthcare expenditures, and higher societal expectations. The authors note the need for the transformation of healthcare systems to overcome these challenges. The ingredient of the transformation of health systems is the introduction of AI in the healthcare systems. The article explores how artificial intelligence application in healthcare will help the world achieve universal healthcare (UHC) through improving effectiveness, responsiveness, efficiency, and equity of healthcare services provision and health of the public. The article is relevant and accurate on the topic because it discusses the impact of artificial intelligence in healthcare systems. The authors give balanced information about artificial intelligence, and they are an authority in the subject matter.  The lead author Dr. Trishan Panch is Chief Medical Officer and Co-founder of Wellframe, who leads in AI strategy and initiatives in the medical field. The article gives recent information about the utilization of AI in the health systems.

Pearl, R. (2018). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: Separating reality from hype. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertpearl/2018/03/13/artificial-intelligence-in-healthcare/#6afd85aa1d75

                 Pearl notes that the application of artificial intelligence in the medical field has been around since 1956. The author explains that most commonly used artificial intelligence application in healthcare is algorithmic that uses evidence-based approaches by clinicians and medical researchers. The second application that Pearl identifies is the use of visual tools for recognition in healthcare. According to Pearl (2018), the human eye fails even the best medical experts, and therefore, tools that use AI are necessary to replace human eye diagnosis. The author notes that the accuracy gap between the human eye and the digital eye is wide, especially machines used in diagnostic fields such as MRI, CT, and mammography information interpretation. The article compares artificial intelligence application in the medical field with traditional methods. The article contains up-to-date insights about information technology application in healthcare, and the author can provide accurate statistics on how AI has revolutionized the medical field. Although the article is not scholarly, it gives credible and balanced information about the utilization of artificial intelligence in the medical field. Robert Pearl is an authority in the medical field, who was the CEO of The Permanente Medical Group, the largest medical group in the United States. His article provides candid tidbits about how artificial intelligence application is impacting different medical fields in the United States.

Reddy, S., (2018). Use of Artificial intelligence in healthcare delivery. Research Gate. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74714

                 Reddy notes that adoption of artificial intelligence in healthcare has rapidly improved healthcare delivery. He adds that AI is being applied in numerous healthcare sectors, including clinical laboratories, hospitals, and research facilities to improve the healthcare delivery systems. The author continues to explain how the application of AI in healthcare has been fundamental in creating myriad opportunities for medical professionals and healthcare organizations. The article gives recent information about artificial intelligence. The author has expertise in the medical field, and therefore, he has the authority to speak about artificial intelligence in the medical field. The article gives detailed factual information about the application of artificial intelligence in the medical field. The article is a balanced source because it gives critical information about artificial intelligence and healthcare delivery. The Author is an associate professor at Deakin University in the School of Medicine. He has done a lot of research in hospital management, health evaluation, and artificial intelligence. The article gives recent details about the application of artificial intelligence in healthcare.


COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects.

Sometimes the remedy is worse than the disease.”

“Francis Bacon”


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects.

Some people may experience side effects after the vaccine. These are usually mild and are much less serious than developing coronavirus or complications associated with coronavirus. Any side effects usually go away within a few days.  Most side effects are a sign your immune system is responding well to the vaccine, and are nothing to worry about. The most common side effects that have been reported are soreness at the site of the injection, mild fever, chills, headaches, fatigue and muscle aches. These do not tend to last long and are a sign that your immune system is reacting well to the vaccine.

1.The most common reported side effect following vaccination is pain at the injection site.

2.If you have a history of severe allergic reactions to vaccines, your doctor may advise you not to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Common side effects.

Some of the common side effects of the coronavirus vaccine may include:

tenderness, swelling and/or redness at the injection site


muscle ache

feeling tired

fever (temperature above 37.8°C).

A less common side effect is swelling of the glands. This starts a few days after the vaccine and may last for up to 2 weeks. This is to be expected and is a sign of the immune system responding to the vaccine.

Fever after the coronavirus vaccine.

It’s quite common to develop a fever after a vaccination. This normally happens within 48 hours of the vaccination and usually goes away within 48 hours.

You do not need to self-isolate or book a test unless you have other coronavirus symptoms or:

you have been told by NHS Test and Protect, or your occupational health team, that you are a close contact of someone who has tested positive for coronavirus.

you live with someone who has recently tested positive for coronavirus

you live with someone who has symptoms of coronavirus.

If the fever starts more than 48 hours after the vaccination or lasts longer than 48 hours, you should self-isolate.