Stress-Busting Strategies: A Guide to Managing Stress

Stress is a normal part of life, but it can take a toll on our physical and mental health when it becomes overwhelming. Learning to manage stress is an integral part of leading a healthy and balanced life. Stress management is a set of tools, techniques, and strategies to help us cope healthily and productively. It can involve lifestyle changes, relaxation techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

The Effects of Stress

Stress can have a significant impact on our physical and mental health. It can cause physical symptoms such as headaches, muscle tension, and fatigue. It can also lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating.

It’s important to recognize the signs of stress and take steps to manage it before it gets out of control. A healthy lifestyle and stress management techniques can help us to reduce the effects of stress.

Lifestyle Changes for Stress Management

Making lifestyle changes can be an effective way to manage stress. Eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising regularly can all help to reduce stress levels. It’s also important to take time for yourself to relax and enjoy activities that you enjoy.

It’s also important to limit your exposure to stressful situations and people. Taking a break from social media, avoiding toxic relationships, and setting boundaries can help to reduce stress levels.

Relaxation Techniques for Stress Management

Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and meditation can help to reduce stress levels. These techniques can be practiced anywhere and can be used to quickly reduce stress in the moment.

It’s important to find the relaxation technique that works best for you and to practice it regularly. Taking time to relax can help to reduce stress levels and improve overall wellbeing.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy that can help to reduce stress levels. CBT helps to identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that can contribute to stress. It can also help to improve communication and problem-solving skills.

CBT can be done with a therapist or on your own. It can be a helpful tool for managing stress and improving overall wellbeing.

Stress can have a significant impact on our physical and mental health, so it’s important to find ways to manage it. Making lifestyle changes, practicing relaxation techniques, and using cognitive-behavioral therapy can all be helpful tools for reducing stress levels.

It’s important to find the techniques that work best for you and to practice them regularly. Taking time to manage stress can help to improve overall wellbeing and quality of life.

The future of public health

The future of public health

Government policy implementation may at times cause a vastly different impression in the general public than policy goals to obtain the objectives of a policy. The Affordable Care Act that was passed by the Obama administration grew to be called Obama Care. The policy change on the Obama Care has implications on the managerial approach to public administration, the political approach and the legal approach.  It is important to understand what the Affordable care Act was all about and the changes it brings up.  With regards to the policy Rosenbloom et al (2015) say, “Not every state has been cooperative with the Obama program, however; and several have stood in defiance of important aspects of the Affordable Care Act (i.e., “Obama-care”), most notably, Texas. Thus, the states still possess political and institutional resources of their own, and some scholars have noted that resistance to Obama’s initiatives on the part of some states may yet hamper the full implementation of his program.”  Health care service provision involves clear payment systems.

Medicare policy is one of the most influential in US healthcare that is associated with Obama Care.  They form a benchmark for private insurance plans. Different health care systems have unique characteristics. The characteristics are shaped by existing policies. Medicare medical coverage assures people of effective access to health care services.

Poverty is a crucial issue of concern among the senior members of the population in access to health care in the US. In different countries there are different ways in which people pay for health care.  In the United States, insured individuals pay a portion of the cost of health services.  There are subsidies by the government for patients.   The basic structure of the systems and the expenditure are important areas of interest.

The politics of health care involve different kinds of controversies, for example, the case of Obama Care in the United States (Patel and Rushefsky, 2014).   The influence of politics on health care is seen in the case of the Affordable care Act in the US seeks to improve service delivery.  The Affordable Care Act has shifted the focus of healthcare to disease prevention and promotion of overall wellness in the community.   The changes caused by the Affordable Care Act have been crucial in the evolution of health care.  The radical change initiated by the ACA has largely had positive effects on healthcare.    However there was criticism, for example by Donald Trump who promised to repeal the policy once he got elected. With the managerial approach, there is the traditional managerial approach which involves civil bureaucracy and there is the new public management approach (NPM) which is businesslike.   The health policy change has an implication on both these approaches.  Rosenbloom et al (2015) shows, “Traditionalists are being overtaken by reformers who call for “reinventing government” and developing an NPM. The NPM is supplanting the traditional approach in several federal agencies and state and local governments.”   Obama care was a result of health care reforms.

There was a reform oriented approach to policy making by the Obama administration with regards to health care.   Changing the health care policy has an implication on the NPM managerial approach to public administration since it will change how individuals are treated. In the managerial approach the argument is that public administration should be like managed like a business and that was how the Affordable care act operated.  Therefore it cuts the differences between private administration and public administration.

In health care, the private sector also has a big role to play.  The changes proposed on the Affordable Care Act are not just amendments but complete replacement of the law.   Policy making influences health care in many ways, for example, budgeting.  The political approach to public administration shows that public administration is a reflection of political endeavors. The core views in terms of values of those who define public administration in political terms are representation and accountability (Bryson et al, 2010).   The organizational structure in this approach involves pluralism

The insurance industry and the government together affect health care market by affecting how payment for services is done.  Having direct payment is different from using insurance (Green and Rowell, 2010).  It is a wise decision to  provide a product or service in health care that is not directly reimbursed by payers because of the role that insurance and government play.   There are different kinds of models applicable in various situations, for example pay per user models and per use of service models.

Even if funds are not directly reimbursed by the payers, insurance companies cater for the payment.  The government may also have already catered for certain payment. Health care service provision involves clear payment systems that have over the years greatly include the insurance industry.  The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) clearly shows the role of the insurance industry by examining Medicaid and Medicare. The Medicare cover tries to bring up a number of incentives.

The issues within the health care system in the US are greatly shaped by the Affordable Care Act.  Nash et al (2016) shows that the Affordable Care Act makes health care providers responsible for the provision of quality care.

The traditional managerial approach to public administration can effectively explain how the Affordable Care Act came to be. Rosenbloom et al (2015) show that the roots of the traditional managerial approach go back to the 19th-century civil service reformers who first promoted the approach as a means of organizing the public service.  There is an impersonal view of individuals in this view.  It is therefore highly utilized where there is bureaucracy, specialization and formalization.

The approach is used where there are many alternatives to choose from.  The alternatives in this case are reduced by specialization.   Division of functions to different agencies is another issue that makes it possible to use this approach to decision making. There are different approaches to analyzing public policy.  There are managerial perspectives on implementation, political perspectives on implementation and legal perspectives on implementation.

The health care industry keeps changing with time. There is need to have new legislations through introduction of new bills and amendment of existing acts. This means that new bills act as a way to keep up with changes and create a better future.



  1. Berwick, D. (2017, April 1). Obamacare Can Survive Trump. New York Times
  2. Bryson, J., Berry, F. & Yang, K. (2010). The State of Public Strategic Management Research: A Selective Literature Review and Set of Future Directions. The American Review of Public Administration 40(5),  496-521.
  3. DeBonis, M. (2017, Mar 19). Ryan: More help for older people needed in GOP health bill. Boston Globe.
  4. Green, M. and Rowell, J. (2010) Understanding health insurance:  a guide to billing and reimbursement. New York: Cengage.
  5. Nash, D., Fabius, R., Skoufalos, A, Clarke, J., & Horowitz, M., (2016). Population health: Creating a culture of wellness. (2nd Ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett
  6. Parsons, C. (2017).  Introduction to Political Science. Pearson, 20160113. Pearson Education. VitalBook file.
  7. Patel, K. & Rushefsky, M. (2014).  Healthcare Politics and Policy in America. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
  8. Rosenbloom, D., Kravchuk, R. & Clerkin, R. (2015). Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector . McGraw-Hill Higher Education.  Kindle Edition.

Pancreatic Cancer Prevention and Vitamin E

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease in which the healthy cells in the pancreas stop to work correctly and start growing out of control (Casari & Falasca, 2015). These cancerous cells have a potential to build up and end up forming a mass of cancerous cells which is referred to as a tumor. A tumor caused by cancer is usually malignant meaning that it can rapidly grow and start spreading to other body parts. As the pancreatic tumor grows, it affects the functions of the pancreas and begins by spreading and growing in the nearest blood vessels and closest organs. Eventually, if the tumor is not diagnosed early enough, it spreads to other parts of the body through a process known as metastasis. Pancreatic cancer has a tendency of spreading silently before diagnosis. It often goes unnoticed until when it reaches advanced levels when it is difficult to treat. Despite the fact that making a diagnosis of this disease at an early stage has proved somewhat very hard, it is also difficult to treat because it is highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Han et al…, 2013). . As a matter of fact, in most cases, the symptoms of pancreatic cancer only develop after the disease has already grown in the body and has started spreading to other parts. As such, this makes it one of the fatal cancer diagnoses as compared to other types of cancers. This disease is such deadly that it is ranked fourth in the main causes of deaths related to cancer in the United States. It has the record of becoming one of the fatal cancers in U.S. The main causative agents for pancreatic cancer are said to be genetic factors, followed by other causes that damage the DNA such as smoking, getting elderly, and diabetes. However, dietary elements such as obesity, highly consuming red meats, and fried food are also potential risk factors that could play a critical role in the development of cancer of the pancreas. Several research studies have evidenced that consuming diets which are rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grain would be very significant in preventing pancreatic cancer.

Several factors affect pancreatic cancer initiation and increase the risk of developing this form of cancer. It is important to note that although these factors often influence the development of this disease, they cannot be directly linked to causing it (Stan, Sing & Brand, 2010). Some people with these factors such as people who smoke or take alcohol may never develop cancer, while on the other hand others with no known factors end up developing it. Often, the primary cause of pancreatic cancer remains unknown. However, the following factors may influence pancreatic cancer initiation and may raise the risk of developing this aggrieve disease. The first factor is age. The potential risk of contracting pancreatic cancer increases as one gets older. Multiple research findings have evidence that most people who develop this disease are usually older than forty-five years of age. As a matter of fact, ninety percent of those who develop pancreatic cancer are usually more than fifty-five years, and seventy percent of this people are usually more than sixty-five years old (Husain et al…,  2017) . However, adults can be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and any given age. The second factor is gender. It has also been proved that more males are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer than females. The other factor associated with pancreatic cancer is smoking. People who have a behavior of smoking have a higher chance of contracting the disease than people who do not smoke. They are two to three times more likely to develop this disease. The other factor is diabetes. Many research studies have confirmed that diabetes and particularly when someone has had for a long duration of time probably multiple years, increases the potential risk of developing this cancer. Additionally, sudden development of diabetes when one is his/her adult years could be an early indicator that one is having pancreatic cancer. The other factor is obesity and diet. Research has indicated that obese and even overweight people and more so adults are a high risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Moreover, regularly consuming foods that have high levels of fat is a risk factor associated with this disease. The other factor is alcohol whereby chronic or heavy use of alcohol can increase the potential risk of pancreatic cancer, and mostly because this causes recurrent pancreatitis. The last factor associated with pancreatic cancer is family history whereby this disease could run in the family’s lineage. This is referred to as familial pancreatic cancer, and it mostly comes in when at least two family members the family who happen to be relatives of the first level such as parents, brothers or sisters or at least three members of the family suffer from pancreatic cancer or possibly could have had it in the past (Casari & Falasca, 2015).  Factors that Influence Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

How Diet can reduce or prevent pancreatic cancer risk

Diet has a profound influence on the development of pancreatic cancer. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify the relationship between diet and the possibility of contracting pancreatic cancer (Stan, Sing & Brand, 2010). Most of the studies have agreed to the fact that a diet which is high in fat and smoked or other processed meat is associated with the development of this disease. As such, one should consume a healthy diet, one that is rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grain. This will prevent one from getting a high risk of contracting pancreatic cancer. While no diet has been proven to change the risk for pancreatic cancer, a diet like the one detailed above, one that is particularly rich in vegetables and fresh fruits, with controlled lean meat are the most advised diet for the overall health of the body. Therefore, consuming a diet that is characterized by fresh fruits and vegetable, nuts as well as whole grain foods, combined with controlled calorie levels, is a valuable mechanism for prevention of pancreatic cancer.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is not only crucial for the prevention of pancreatic cancer, but it is also vital in keeping healthy as well as preventing other diseases. It is found in a broad variety of foods, and it is best consumed in a healthy diet (Stan, Sing & Brand, 2010). The most common and reliable dietary sources of vitamin E include nuts such as hazelnuts and peanuts and vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils. In addition, green leafy vegetables such as kales, broccoli, and spinach also contain vitamin E. There are plenty of benefits that go along consuming plenty of vitamins E. Its primary function is to protect the cells from damage, and it goes ahead to help in the reduction of a variety of health-related problems such as cancer and particular pancreatic cancer as to per this discussion. In addition to protecting cells, vitamin E has many other roles (Han et al…, 2013). For instance, it plays a key role in the functioning of the immune system, and it also catalyzes the production of prostaglandins which are hormone-like substances that are responsible for regulation of several body processes such as contraction of muscles and blood pressure. Vitamin E also aids in the repair of muscles, and thus it is associated with a decreased risk of developing age-related cataracts.

Most research findings have indicated that an intake of vitamin E reduces the potential risk of pancreatic cancer. In a study to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and prevent metastasis, vitamin E demonstrated that it is bioactive against cancer and plays a significant role in the prevention of metastases (Stan, Sing & Brand, 2010). It selectively inhibits pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. In actual sense, vitamin E delays the progression of pancreatic cancer and plays a critical role in improving the existence of genetically modified forms of pancreatic oncogenesis. Further, it is evident that vitamin E significantly inhibits metastases and the biomarkers of metastases as seen in the study. It is thus evident that vitamin E intake is closely linked to a decreased risk of many malignant diseases leave alone pancreatic cancer. The study provides evidence that vitamin E intake is linked to a decreased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Additionally, the intake of vitamin E might play quite a significant role in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. This finding thus has crucial importance to the general public as it enlightens them on their health matters.


Pancreatic cancer in the past was considered on relatively rare occasions. However, in the recent past, its incidence and development in quite a considerable part of the population have been increasing gradually. As discussed before, cancer of the pancreas is now the 4th leading cause of cancer-related deaths with, and it’s estimated that will soon rise to the 2nd position. Therefore, it is the high time that people change their diet if at all they do not want to be attacked by this fatal disease. They should begin taking a high-quality diet to reduce the chances of developing cancer of the pancreas. This diet should contain fresh fruits, vegetables, slender meat, whole grains, and legumes while it should be low in sodium and sugar. Vitamin E is also worthwhile for everyone, in addition to the fact that it plays a significant role in preventing chronic and/or life-threatening diseases such as cancer of the pancreas. Moreover, vitamin E is used as a chemo-prevention agent since it prevents neuropathy that is caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients.



  1. Casari, I., &Falasca, M. (2015). Diet and pancreatic cancer prevention. Cancers, 7(4), 2309-2317.
  2. Han, X., Li, J., Brasky, T. M., Xun, P., Stevens, J., White, E., …& He, K. (2013). Antioxidant intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Cancer, 119(7), 1314-1320.
  3. Husain, K., Centeno, B. A., Coppola, D., Trevino, J., Sebti, S. M., &Malafa, M. P. (2017). δ-Tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E, inhibits pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and prevents pancreatic cancer metastasis. Oncotarget, 8(19), 31554.
  4. Stan, S. D., Singh, S. V., & Brand, R. E. (2010). Chemoprevention strategies for pancreatic cancer. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(6), 347.



Cloud service-level agreement

A service-level agreement (SLA) is a commitment between a service provider and a client. Particular aspects of the service – quality, availability, responsibilities – are agreed between the service provider and the service user. The most common component of an SLA is that the services should be provided to the customer as agreed upon in the contract. As an example, Internet service providers and telcos will commonly include service level agreements within the terms of their contracts with customers to define the level(s) of service being sold in plain language terms. In this case the SLA will typically have a technical definition in mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair or mean time to recovery (MTTR); identifying which party is responsible for reporting faults or paying fees; responsibility for various data rates; throughput; jitter; or similar measurable details.(wikipedia)

Cloud service-level agreement is an arrangement between a cloud specialist organization and a client that guarantees a base help level is kept up. It ensures unwavering quality, accessibility, and responsiveness to frameworks and applications; indicates who administers when there is a help interference; and depicts punishments if administration levels are not met.

In the wake of social event, every one of the assets provided by Amazon Web Service, By their revised SLA are:

Recognize and characterize clients’ necessities and limitations, including the degree of assets, security, timing, and administration quality. Give a system to comprehension. A fundamental part of this system is a reasonable meaning of classes of administration and expenses. Work on complex issues; for instance, explain the limits between the customers’ duties and those of the administration supplier if disappointment arises.

Decrease regions of disagreement.

Energize discourse in case of questions.

Wipe out unreasonable assumptions.

Service-level agreement records a typical comprehension in a few territories:


  1. administrations,
  2. needs,
  3. duties,
  4. safeguards, and
  5. guarantees.


An agreement covers typically:

All the services to be conveyed, execution, following and revealing, issue the executives, legitimate consistency and goal of questions, client obligations, and duties, security, management of private data.

The fundamental parts of security are:

The absence of client control, possible unapproved optional use, information multiplication, and dynamic provisioning.

The absence of client control alludes to how client-driven information control is contrary to cloud utilization. Whenever information is put away on the CSP workers, the client fails to grasp the specific area and, in some instances, it could lose admittance to the information.

The sorts of data Amazon accumulates:

The actual clients gave data:

We get and store any information you enter on our Webpage or give us in some other manner. You can decide not to provide specific data; however, you likely will not have the alternative to abuse a significant number of our features. We use the information you oblige for such purposes as responding to your re-ventures, tweaking future searching for you, improving our stores, and talking with you.

And Automatically collected information:

We get and store specific sorts of data at whatever point you collaborate with us. For example, similarly to other Web objections, we use “cookies,” and we acquire specific kinds of data when your Web program gets to or commercials and other substances served by or for the benefit of’s other Web locales.

Cell phone Users:

At the point when you download or use applications made by Amazon or our auxiliaries, we may get information about your territory and your wireless, including a specific identifier for your gadget. We may use this information to outfit you with cloud-based organizations, like promoting, list items, and other customized content. Most cell phones permit you to turn off area/location administrations.

Email Communications:

To help us make emails more valuable and energizing, we regularly get an affirmation when you open an email connection from if your PC supports such abilities. We likewise contrast our client list with records from different organizations to try not to send gratuitous messages to our clients. If you prefer not to get an email or other mail from us, kindly change your Customer Communication Preferences. Data from Other Sources: We may obtain facts about you from diverse sources and add them to our documented data.

Simultaneously it expresses that A client also can:

Adjust the Customer Communication Preferences to forestall E-sends from Amazon.

Adjust the Advertising Preferences to keep Amazon from utilizing individual data accumulated to permit outsiders to customize Amazon’s commercials to the client.

Disable cookies using the facilities given by the Amazon cloud services (Amazon, 2020).



  1. Amazon. (2020, July 22). Amazon Compute Service Level Agreement. Retrieved from
  2. Kearney, K.T.; Torelli, F. (2011). “The SLA Model”. In Wieder, P.; Butler, J.M.; Theilmann, W.; Yahyapour, R. (eds.). Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. pp. 43–68. ISBN 9781461416142.
  3. “The Service Level Agreement Zone”. SLA Information Zone. Service Level Agreement Zone. 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
Social determinants of health diagram_purple

Population Health Advocacy

Population Health Advocacy

This study is conducted to discuss about the healthcare policies that are introduced by the legislators and to investigate the role of legislator towards the policy issue and particular bill. This study will discuss the health advocacy and the role of advocates for the healthcare professionals as well as for the healthcare consumers. The impact of the policy on the specific population is also being discussed in this paper. The different stakeholders that can contribute to the promotion of this cause will also be discussed.

Health advocacy

Health advocacy plays a significant role in the promotion of health and access to healthcare. The healthcare advocates work for the different communities and for the larger public to advocate for their health issues and basic health rights. The health advocacy helps the people to make informed decisions about their health and help them to navigate the complex health system. The health advocates also help the patients to understand the meanings of medical terms (Hubinette, 2017).

Healthcare policy or Bill

In this study, the healthcare policy or bill that is discussed is presented and sponsored by Ted Budd. He is the representative in Congress from 2017. He belongs to the Republican Party. He is from North Carolina, District 13. Ted Budd has introduced the bill that was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means. The bill was presented to abandon the high deductible healthcare plan requirements for the health savings accounts. The bill was introduced on 13th January 2021. The bill is related to the current health situation of the world, the Covid 19 pandemic. The name of the Act was presented in the bill as, “Pandemic Healthcare Access Act (CONGRESS.GOV, 2021).”

This Act presented by Ted Budd was to waive high deductible health plan requirements for health savings accounts. In the section 1, the short title of the Act was presented as the Pandemic Healthcare Access Act. In the section 2 of the bill, the Access to health saving accounts was discussed. Ted Budd with other 21 co-sponsors proposed that under the subsection (c) (1) of the section 223 of the 1986 Internal Revenue Code, thereof, the period of coronavirus, in which any individual who is covered by any health plan also including the plans that are not the high deductible plan will be treated as an eligible person. Pandemic Healthcare Access Act

Ted Budd played his role as a legislator and senator by proposing that the eligible person can make the contributions to the health savings account of the individuals for the Federal tax income for the taxable year. The taxable year includes the last day of the coronavirus emergency period that was an emergency period of coronavirus beginning on 13th March 2020 (CONGRESS.GOV, 2021).

Importance of policy

This healthcare policy is important as it preserves the eligibility of a health savings account. In this emergency situation of coronavirus pandemic, it is important that such bills are passed to cover the health plans in this emergency situation. This healthcare policy would be the much-needed step towards the healthcare freedom to provide benefit to millions of US residents. This healthcare policy would provide benefit the individuals regardless of their healthcare insurance. It is providing an opportunity to all the Americans to get access to a safe vehicle for saving their money by making it tax-free for the expenditures done on the healthcare. This policy should matter to all the individuals who want to get access to make their money safer. We should play our part by supporting this bill and to ask our representatives to also support and sponsor that bill for a better healthcare environment in America. I can strengthen the policy by showing my support for the bill. In this way, the Americans get the benefit of freedom and they can choose to how they can manage their healthcare. We should support the bill Pandemic Healthcare Access Act as it addresses both the economic and healthcare issues. Therefore, there should be an expansion in HSAs in Health Savings Accounts (Norquist, 2021).

Role of health advocate

The role of a health advocate is to provide assistance, educate, and support the families so that they can make proper decisions for their healthcare issues. They provide assistance in all the issues related to patients. They educate the patients regarding the health issue, healthcare, medicines, insurance, and legal areas related to healthcare (Hubinette, 2017). I have to play the role of health advocate to advocate for the healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers by supporting the bill of healthcare access. I have the responsibility to spread public awareness about certain healthcare policies or healthcare issues.

Role as an advocate

As a health advocate, I have to work with the healthcare professionals that are working in the healthcare facility. I have to explain the financial information of the patients. I can also help the patients to understand their medical rights. As an advocate, I can make sure that all the patients are aware of the new bill that has been introduced by Ted Budd. They must be aware of the new bill or healthcare policies regarding healthcare. I can spread awareness among the patients to make it easy for them to know about the new healthcare policies and urge them to ask their representatives to support or sponsor the bill. I can educate the patients that how they can take benefit from this healthcare policy even with the healthcare insurance plan so that the healthcare consumers can urge their representatives to sponsor the bill. In this situation of the pandemic, it is important to educate the people on how they can save money on healthcare expenditures. They can save the money as the money will become tax-free on the expenditure for healthcare. In this way, many people will get the knowledge about the bill and they can help in the approval of these policies. Once the bill will be passed, there will be many people who can take benefit of this healthcare policy.

Impact of Policy

This policy has a significant impact on the particular population. The people can save their money by making it tax-free on healthcare expenditure. There will be a significant impact on the economy and on the health of the people. With the expansion of the health savings accounts, people can get relief in this pandemic situation where everyone is worried about the employment. The economy went down and the people are facing the financial issues. The access to healthcare with such policies can reduce their issues and provide them a chance to live peacefully in this pandemic situation. The government is responsible to provide such healthcare policies that can improve the health of the people. This healthcare policy can also provide benefits to the people who do not have any high deductible health plan HDHP. The people with the Medicaid and Medicare facility can also enjoy the benefits of this healthcare policy. The patients receiving healthcare facilities from Obamacare, VA, Indian health plans, and employer plans can also take the benefit of this healthcare policy. The healthcare saving accounts will be available to hundreds of millions of the Americans. Here, the healthcare saving accounts mean that government will take less money from the patients for the healthcare services and this is a tax cut, not a spending increase (Norquist, 2021).

Stakeholders Collaboration

There can be many stakeholders with whom I can collaborate to promote the cause and spread awareness about the benefits of this policy. I can work with the social workers who work to promote the solutions for the healthcare issues. I can urge them to spread awareness that how this bill can change the life in this pandemic situation. I can also urge the healthcare providers to educate the patients about the new bill and how it can provide the benefits and improve the overall health of Americans. Moreover, I can also discuss with the patients to inform them about the bill and urge them to ask their representatives to support or to sponsor the bill. I can collaborate with the media persons to spread awareness about the benefits of this new bill. I can also collaborate with the social media experts or the influencers to run a campaign to support the bill. The huge support to the bill can make it a successful healthcare policy in providing the relief during the most difficult times in the history. Many people will get the benefit from the passing of this bill in the pandemic situation.

Analytical Statement

This study concludes that the new bill of Pandemic healthcare access Act should be passed to provide benefits to the Americans. The Americans need support from the government in the form of such healthcare policies. The government has not to increase any spending but there will be a tax cut only. The health advocates should provide knowledge to the patients about the benefits of this new bill and they should collaborate with various stakeholders to promote the cause and gain support or sponsorship from different representatives. In this way, millions of Americans can enjoy the benefits of improved health during the pandemic situation.


CONGRESS.GOV. (2021). H.R.295 – Pandemic Healthcare Access Act. Retrieved from CONGRESS.GOV:

CONGRESS.GOV. (2021). Representative Ted Budd. Retrieved from CONGRESS.GOV:

Hubinette, M. D. (2017). Health advocacy. Medical Teacher, 39(2), 128-135.

Norquist, G. (2021). Why Health Care Saving Accounts should be expanded during coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved from Fox Business:


US Healthcare Terminology -Basics for Healthcare Business.

The first one is subscriber. So a subscriber is an individual who, who meets the health plans, eligibility requirement, and who can enroll in a health plan, and he or she accepts the financial responsibility for any premiums or CO payments coinsurance or deductibles.
So the next term is a member, member is a person who is eligible to receive or is receiving benefits from an HMO or an insurance policy. This This includes those who have enrolled or subscribed in their eligible dependents, so a subscriber is the person who gets these benefits, whereas a member gets enrolled and also his, his dependents are covered so person becomes a member of a health care plan, whereas a subscriber is just an individual.
The next term is provider, so a provider is a supplier of healthcare services, like a hospital or nursing home lab or physician so anyone who provides you with the healthcare service is called the provider.
The next one is claim. So a claim is, is like a detail invoice that your healthcare provider so like we talked about in the earlier from a doctor or a clinic or hospital, this, this claim is like an invoice that’s, that’s being sent to the health insurance, health insurer, who is your insurance provider and this invoice will exactly show what services you have received your member ID, your name your demographics, everything that’s needed to actually pay out that claim.
And next is co insurance. So, coinsurance, you might have come across this term, this is a form of cost sharing between the member and the insurance company so you and the health insurance provider. So, if you’re insured, you pay a percentage of the cost of covered medical services, and the insurance company pays a percentage. So usually it’s like after you cross a certain amount of money, and after you pay it out. The insurance company won’t usually pay you the entire amount of money. It’s like will pay 90% And you have to cover the remaining 10% Now I want to include another word here it’s called out of pocket maximum. So, for example the out of pocket maximum is like $10,000, you are only liable to pay $10,000 So, if your claim amount is $20,000. The 10 percentage that I mentioned earlier, would be applicable only for the $10,000 out of pocket maximum. After that, the claim, usually covers the entire charges that you have to incur.
The next one is CO payment. SO, CO payment again is a form of cost sharing where the insured person basis specify specified flat amount per unit of service, so for example if you’re visiting a doctor and the doctor charges 200 bucks. The CO payment is going to be $30, so you only pay $30 The remaining $70 is being taken care of by the health insurance that you have.
And the next one is deductible. So A deductible is a certain dollar amount that you must pay before your health insurance coverage, actually begins to cover your medical expenses.
It might be $500 per year. And once you’ve got across the $500.
Then the coinsurance applies for applicable, and the plan then proceeds.
Now, getting a bit more technical. So the next word is EDI. This definition is electronic data interchange. Now this is applicable in different industries. And basically this is just a computer to computer exchange of business documents in a standard electronic format, between business partners. So basically it’s an encrypted way of sending information from one organization to another, because the data that you’re transmitting is sensitive.
The next term is going to be personal health information or PHI .this is also referred to as protected health information. So this generally refers to demographic information like your age, your location, your first name, your last name, your medical history the test and lab results, the insurance information, and any other data that a healthcare professional, collects to identify an individual and determine appropriate care. Now, this is protected information because this is confidential and is shouldn’t be only accessible by you.
So when you’re transmitting this information from one organization to another, they make sure that that it’s encrypted and it doesn’t get leaked.
The next one is going to be HIPAA, so HIPAA is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 because that was the year that it was introduced. So HIPAA is nothing but a law that sets standards regarding the security and privacy of a person’s health information.
This has several titles, but we’re just going to talk about Title One and title two, because these titles are more apply more to healthcare claims processing. So, the first title is called health insurance reform. Now, this is a title that protects health insurance coverage for individuals who lose or change jobs. So suppose you lose your job, or change your job. The diamond trouble should be covered by your health insurance. And this also prohibits on group health plans from denying coverage to individuals with specific diseases and pre existing conditions, and from setting lifetime coverage limits. So that basically means that if you have a pre existing condition, that should be covered by your health insurance plan and that is the law.
Moving on to title one to title two is administrative simplification. So, this title basically says that it establishes national standards for processing these health insurance transactions. So it basically requires your health care organizations to implement the secure systems to transmit this health data from one organization to another or to the state.
The next term is coordination of benefits. So, this is a process where, if an individual has to group health plans, the amount payable is divided between the two plans. So, the combined coverage amounts. Do not exceed 200% of the charges. So it’s basically means that if the person has two plans, it shouldn’t be more than 100% of what the person should be actually getting the next one is ICD codes.
So, we’re going to talk about ICD 10 First, so I think he just means International Classification of Diseases. And previously, the version was ICD nine. After the October 1 of 2015, ICD, 10 was introduced and it’s basically a clinical cataloguing system that went into effect. And this basically accounts for modern advances in clinical treatment and medical devices. So, these codes actually offer many forms of classifying options compared to ICD nine. So, ICD 10 actually covers about 16,000 medical devices and healthcare health conditions, whereas ICD nine covers about 13,000 and the next term is HL7. It provides a framework. It’s help level seven, and this provides a framework where the exchange, the sharing and retrieval of electronic health information.
This has been this basically follows a certain structure and the standards are basically how information is defined and communicated from one party to another. So it sets, what language to use what the data structure of the file should be what, what the data types should be. So this basically helps the integration between different systems.
The last one is ASC X12, So ASC X12 is a file created by standards committee. So, it’s an organization, and it was charted by the American National Standards Institute and develops and maintains these xml content, and establishes standards for. So, These EDI files are basically XML schemas and the organization or committee. They actually need to remind how these standards should be called the file structure.


Department of Public Health, State of Massachusetts. An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Health Care 2006.
National Health Expenditure Data. Centers for Medicare & Medcaid Services web- site.
-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/index.html. Accessed May 17, 2021.
Murray CJ, Frenk J. A framework for assessing the performance of health systems.
Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(6):717–731.
OECD. Performance measurement and improvement in OECD health systems: over- view of issues and challenges. In: Measuring Up: Improving Health System Performance in OECD Countries. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2002.
OECD. Health status: infant mortality. In: Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indica- tors. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2011.
Anderson GF, Markovich P. Multinational comparisons of health systems data, 2008. Commonwealth Fund website.
/Chartbooks/2010/Apr/Multinational-Comparisonsof-Health-Systems-Data-2008.aspx. Published 2008. Accessed March 31, 2021.
OECD. Health status: life expectancy at birth. In: Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2011.
OECD. Quality of care: avoidable admissions—respiratory diseases. In: Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2011.
OECD. Health expenditure and financing: health expenditure in relation to GDP. In:
Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2011.
OECD. Health expenditure and financing: health expenditure per capita. In: Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2011.
DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Smith JC, U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports (P60-239): Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Govenrment Printing Office; 2011.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. 111th Congress, 2nd Session, ed 2010.
NHE summary including share of GDP, CY 1960–2010; Historical National Health Expenditure Data. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. -Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsHistorical.html. Accessed April 9, 2021.
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/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/National HealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsProjected.html. Accessed April 9, 2021.
CBO’s Year-by-Year Forecast and Projections for Calendar Years 2009 to 2020; The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2020. Congressional Budget Office website. Accessed April 9, 2021.
Orszag PR. CBO testimony: growth in health care costs. Delivered before the Com- mittee on the Budget, United States Senate. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office; 2008.
Congressional Budget Office. CBO’s economic projections for 2009 to 2019. http:// Accessed March 31, 2021.
Mitka M. Growth in health care spending slows, but still outpaces rate of inflation.
JAMA. 2009;301(8):815–816.

Genetic effects Due to folate deficiency.

Folate deficiency and the utilization of folate drugs during early stages of pregnancy gets teratogenic and could result in many abnormalities into the development of fetus-like death. According to Blackburn, (2013), it’s probable that marginal folate status makes the probability of genetic defects in the mother more likely to happen. Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis become fundamental to ladies during the stage. Genetic defects identification gives room for counseling and further treatment if necessary to the patient and prevention of the defects from manifesting.

Serum marker testing benefits
Maternal serum screening test entails testing of the blood of a pregnant person to establish the potential of Edward syndrome, Down syndrome and neural tube defects that manifest within the unborn child. According to Loftus, (2014), the tests get conducted at least 10 weeks or 14-20 weeks depending on the applicable tests. Other tests include NIPT that’s non-invasive testing done during pregnancy to determine if the pregnancy gets affected by Trisomy 13, Edward Syndrome and Down syndrome. Additional tests that ought to get conducted during pregnancy include first-trimester prenatal screening tests, second-trimester prenatal screening tests, and amniocentesis.
Teratogens vulnerability
Teratogens entail elements that result in death defects and occur in the environment where the pregnant woman lives. Once conception takes place it requires six to nine days for implantation to happen. Schmerler, (2015) argued that the moment the egg gets fertilized it may relatively cross from the mother to the fetus. Teratogens might impact the fetus within 10 to 14 days following conception. Different organs get developed during the time, but it’s notable that certain organs remain sensitive throughout the pregnancy period, for instance, the central nervous system.
  1. Blackburn, S. T. (2013). Maternal, fetal, & neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier Saunders.
  2. Loftus, C. M. (2014). Neurosurgical aspects of pregnancy. Park Ridge, Ill: American Association of Neurological Surgeons.
  3. Schmerler, S. (2015). Lessons learned: Risk management issues in genetic counseling. New York: Springer.

My Analytical Thoughts on US Healthcare System.

The United States healthcare system is one of the leading and unique systems in the world.United States healthcare has improved exceedingly with better medical coverage, quality of services, technical advances, and overall health outcomes. Currently, the United States government invests and spends heavily on health care per capita than any other developed nation globally. Healthcare in the USA, over the years, has experienced a significant transformation concerning value-based healthcare and health outcomes for patients. Thus, the healthcare system has improved based on medical care. Technological advancement, health policies, and medical research have been the center of this transformation. Currently, according to the annual statistic survey by the American Hospital Association, the United States has over 6,000 hospitals with over 100 hospitals in each state.

To improve the quality of healthcare, the United States healthcare has employed over 60,000 professional medical nurses and has employed the use of Accountable Care Organizations, Medicare star ratings, value-based healthcare, and pay for performance to facilitate the same.
With increasing information sharing, complex diseases, and globalization, healthcare in the U.S. Introduced technologies such as EHR and Health Information System to improve quality care, patient outcomes, clinical efficiency, and safe healthcare services. The United States health expenditure per capita spent is more than double of all OECD countries average expense, thereby providing comprehensive health care quality amid the patients. Thus, the research paper will show the United States health care perspective from different views: people, the global and the Government.
Core Analysis:
Health care in the United States is very different and unique from any other place due to there is no Universal healthcare coverage in the U.S. Thus, the term Universal healthcare (UHC) range refers to a health care system that all individuals and societies can use the rehabilitative, curative, preventive, promotive, and palliative health services they require without exposing the patient to financial hardship (Kieny, et al., 2017). UHC has been one of the problems facing American citizens since it is yet to be implemented in the USA when they are in need of health services without money (Kieny, et al., 2017).
However, the U.S. is primarily one of the nations that provide citizens with governmental insurance on the healthcare fringe.
To make life easier for patients who need immediate attention and care, the U.S. health care uses the Affordable Care Act to make sure preventive services are available without deductibles, co-insurance, and co-pays (Breslau et al., 2018). Most countries have implemented the use of UHC in their health care system, such as Hawaii. The best medical coverage has helped better the healthcare services in Hawaii as most people can access medical services at an affordable cost. The U.S. government seeks to better the healthcare system in various aspects as controversies increase among Republican Party representatives who vote against the Obamacare initiative to raise taxes.
The United States government spends considerable money on the healthcare system supported by two healthcare types: Medicare and Medicaid. These types of healthcare coverage were created to provide services for the young, old, disabled, or poor people.
According to NCBI, in 2013, 64% of U.S. healthcare funds are from the government, and they are
expecting to rise to 67.1 % in 2024 (Himmelstein & Woolhandler, 2016). The cost of healthcare
services is high in the United States, which has forced many people, especially older citizens, to seek alternative measures to receive medical care. The federal government should employ initiatives that help bring down the cost of medical care, therefore, achieve the ultimate goal of universal healthcare for all American citizens (Purnell et al., 2016).
American citizens use health insurance as a health care plan to cover the costs of medication, hospitalization, and medical treatment. Every citizen entitled to medical care and enrolled in HDHP is required by the U.S. government to pay for Health Saving Plan (HSA). However, some American citizens were not lucky. In 2007, the United States Census Bureau found that over 45 million people do not have health insurance coverage (Barnett & Vornovitsky, 2016).
Due to the rise in funds from the government and the high cost of healthcare, most United States citizens use healthcare plans to cater for medical expenses. The increase in the price of medical funds from the federal government has brought a recession in the United States as many people lose their jobs. Sima Kotecha, a reporter in NewsBeat at BBC, says that 62% of bankruptcies experienced by the United States are from health care costs. According to the American Journal of Medicine, the biggest problem of the United States bankruptcy is medical debt (Himmelstein & Woolhandler, 2016).
Most of the American citizen that pays for medical services are usually on the grounds of installments. In contrast, others neglect their health requirements like being screened or check-up due to their financial circumstances (Himmelstein & Woolhandler. 2016). Nevertheless, the U.S. Government has sort of changing the healthcare system that will help cover all American citizens, especially the poor and disabled and those in the rural areas in the USA, through the health insurance policy (Douthit, et al., 2015). The plan was to be introduced by the government of former President Barack Obama. Consequently, the cost expected to make the changes is estimated to be over 900 billion USD.
In conclusion, from the above paper, it is evident that the USA systems still need to improve on its healthcare services as many American citizens have to pay a lot of money to receive treatment. Thus, healthcare institutions in the United States should focus mainly on improving their healthcare policies, cost of medical care, quality of health care, advancing their technology, and patient outcomes. The U.S. government is encountering a lot of medical debt that has caused most institutions to go bankrupt. Thus, specific initiatives will help to promote health outcomes and solve the predicament of medical debt. The federal government should implement laws covering all American citizens who do not have financial support to carter for health insurance. Every citizen should receive medical services even if there are poor and cannot pay for medical bills. For example, the government should improve its expenditure on the medical sector by initiating concepts such as UHC, health savings accounts, and health insurance coverage for all.
  1. Barnett, J. C., & Vornovitsky, M. 8. (2016). Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2015. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
  2. Breslau, J., Stein, B. D.. Han, B., Shelton, $., & Yu. H. (2018). Impact of the Affordable Care Act’s Dependent Coverage Expansion on the health care and health status of youngadults: what do we know so far?. Medical Care Research and Review, 75(2), 131-152.
  3. Douthit, N., Kiv, §., Dwolatzky, T., & Biswas, S$. (2015). Exposing some important barriers to health care access in the rural USA. Public health, 129(6), 611-620.
  4. Himmelstein, D.U., & Woolhandler, $8. (2016). The Current and Projected Taxpayer Shares of US Health Costs. In: American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association. Retrieved April 12, 2019, from 16/.
  5. Purnell, T. S., Calhoun, E. A., Golden, S. H., Halladay, J. R., Krok-Schoen, J. L.. Appelhans, B.M., & Cooper, L. A. (2016). Achieving health equity: closing the gaps in health care disparities, interventions, and research. Health Affairs, 35(8), 1410-1415.
Soap Ui

what is soapui

Web service testing application

SoapUI is an open-source web service testing application for service-oriented architectures and representational state transfers.

It’s functionality covers web service inspection, invoking, development, simulation and mocking, functional testing, load and compliance testing.
SOAP UI itself a Cross Platform make on the base of JAVA- Framework


•Initially developed and created by OLE LENSER
•In 2004- Ole created this tool for personal use.
• SOAP UI initially released on source forge in 2005
•It has two version open & commercial

Why to use SoapUI :

1.To create quick and efficient API tests
2.To create API functional, performance and security tests
3.To create API Testing automation framework

What is API:

API stands for Application Programming Interface.
An API is a software intermediary that allows two applications to talk to each other. In other words,
an API is the messenger that delivers your request to the provider that you’re requesting it from and then delivers the response back to you.

What is Web Service:

A web service is any piece of software that makes itself available over the internet and uses a standardized XML messaging system. XML is used to encode all communications to a web service.
A web service is a collection of open protocols and standards used for exchanging data between applications or systems.

What is WSDL:

WSDL (Web Services Description Language) is an XML based language which will be used to describe the services offered by a web service.

WSDL describes all the operations offered by the particular web service in the XML format. It also defines how the services can be called, i.e what input value we have to provide and what will be the format of the response it is going to generate for each kind of service.
Dr. Mehedi Hassan

Habits That Can Stop Your Snoring.

Snoring isn’t just noisy but annoying too. 

It is proven with few bed partners they said that; There’s nothing worse than the sound of someone snoring if you’re trying to fall asleep. Or if it’s you who breathes, people may end up teasing you for the loud honking and huffing noise that you make while sleeping! Not only this, but it may also be an indication of a severe health issue that needs medical intervention. 

Continue reading to find more about snoring and also explore some home remedies and lifestyle changes that play a crucial role in resolving this problem.

What causes snoring and its associated health risks?

  • Being overweight. Obesity and overweight can significantly elevate your chances of snoring. Losing even a smidgen of weight can decrease greasy tissue in the rear of the throat,and this may help reduce or also stop snoring.
  • Having inflammation in the throat, nose, and airways. Inflammation and congestion in the nose, throat, or sinus problems or any respiratory infections may also cause snoring.
  • Consuming alcohol. Alcohol relaxes the muscle of the throat, which can make snoring more likely.
  • Smoking irritates the nose, throat, and airway’s sensitive tissues, making them more likely to vibrate and cause snoring. If you smoke, your chances of wheezing are high. So, it’s better to quit.
  • Sleeping position. There is possibility that, ifyou lay on your back leads to a narrower airway and interrupted breathing, thus causing you to snore.

According to various scientific research, people who snore are at a higher risk of developing serious sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea. Also, a few other major ailments such as breathing disorders, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, and fatigue can cause blockage in the breathing pattern and cause you to snore. In some cases, snoring might be an indication of protruding heart disease and stroke! On the off chance that your wheezing keeps your accomplice conscious, it can likewise make the significant relationship

How to stop snoring naturally?

There are many more ideas that you can adopt all alone to quit wheezing. Here are a few bedtime remedies that can help alleviate your snoring problem:

  • Clear nasal passages. If you’re suffering from a stuffy nose, it may make inhalation difficult and can lead to snoring. Try to keep your nasal passages open either by taking a hot shower before bedtime or clear the passage using a ‘pot’ with warm saltwater. You can also try nasal decongestants or nasal strips to help you breathe more easily while sleeping.
  • Keep bedroom air moist with a humidifier. Dry air can aggravate layers in the nose and throat. And this can disrupt your breathing pattern, thus causing you to snore.  
  • Establish a regular sleep pattern. Make a sleep time custom and stick to it. Hitting the sack in a routine way can help you sleep better and minimize snoring problems too.
  • Change your pillow. There are pillows specially designed to help prevent snoring by making sure your neck muscles are not crimped. 
  • Avoid or limit alcohol, at least two to three hours before bedtime, because it relaxes throat muscles and interferes with breathing. So better, don’t drink if you want to sleep in peace without snoring.
  • Sleep on your side. Dozing on your back makes it more probable for your tongue and delicate tissues to drop and hinder your aviation route. 

Moreover, do converse with your primary care physician about any doctor prescribed meds such as a sleeping pill or any sedative you’re taking, as these medicines may encourage a deeper level of sleep, which can make snoring worse.